The research focuses on trade facilitation effects on transnational corporations (TNCs) and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines to what extend the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) meet the concerns of both TNCs headquartered in developed countries and SMEs headquartered in developing and least developed countries. Conceptually, the paper is grounded in the theory of liberal and protectionist approaches to trade and the role of TFA.
Methodologically, it consists in quantitative and qualitative analysis, doctrinal positions assessment and game theory application. The paper aims to reach an in-depth understanding of TFA benefits distribution and to contribute to specialized literature by determining if both TNCs and SMEs behavior reflects the effective participation in global value chains (GVCs) and fulfills the objectives of trade facilitation.